Telemedicine will serve 7 million patients by 2018. This budding field of health care is growing fast, as doctors, patients, and care providers alike realize the huge possibilities telehealth opens up. Health care without leaving your house—who wouldn’t want that?
As 5G network infrastructure becomes widespread, it promises to fuel the trend by boosting the connectivity and effectiveness of IoT devices used in telemedicine, but will this also translate to a boost in 5G security? Security is one of the most important yet tricky aspects of telemedicine—one we can’t ignore.
The virtual doctor will see you now
No one likes going to the doctor, even if you have the greatest doctor ever. First, you trek to the office, which may mean taking off time from work or a long commute. Then, you need to sit in a waiting room, surrounded by other sneezing and coughing patients for an undetermined amount of time, with only outdated magazines for entertainment.
Telemedicine cuts through inconvenience. Patients can videoconference with their doctors from the comfort of their home, saving time, money, and frustration. For rural populations and patients with limited mobility, remote medical care is the difference between avoiding health care and getting your health under control with minimal life disruption.
While telemedicine is still in its early days, it’s poised for incredible growth. More than half of US hospitals currently provide a telemedicine program—and a casual 9 in 10 large employers will make telehealth services available to their employees next year, according to a report from the National Business Group on Health. In 2016, health care giant Kaiser Permanente announced that 52 percent of its 110 million interactions with patients were done via smartphone, videoconferencing, kiosks, and other technology tools. This is the way of the future.
There are a number of forces driving telemedicine’s momentum. One is the regulatory environment. Certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act make telehealth a requirement, and the American Medical Association formally declared its support for the practice (although, they took their time). In 2016, the State Telehealth Laws and Reimbursement Policies report found that 44 states proposed a total of more than 150 pieces of legislation addressing telemedicine.
Then, there’s consumer demand. People are ready and willing to avoid visits to the doctor’s office if at all possible. Again, your living room couch trumps plastic chairs, and 75 percent of patients in the United States who haven’t used a telemedicine service say they would. These aren’t trivial numbers. Plus, the United States has an aging population, with a linked rise in chronic conditions, which telemedicine is equipped to manage.
However, without a strong technical foundation, the regulatory environment and consumer demand don’t matter. Telemedicine depends on the technology delivering it. The advancement of videoconferencing technology, mobile devices, imaging, electronic health records and secure document sharing, wearables, and the IoT have made telemedicine a reality.
Is 5G security a benefit or a risk?
The IoT makes it possible for doctors to efficiently and effectively monitor their patients remotely. For one, CellScope makes an otoscope that plugs into smartphones and allows parents to take photos of their children’s inner ears, avoiding bimonthly trips to the doctor’s office, where they’re handed a prescription accompanied by a lollipop and sent on their way. There are also low cost, lightweight sensors embedded on wearable devices—like K’Track and Johnson & Johnson’s OneTouch Via—which enable continuous glucose monitoring for diabetes patients. The key to the success of these devices is connectivity. The better the connections on mobile devices, the better the IoT and telemedicine can be. This is why the growth of 5G has such profound implications for health IT infrastructure.
Many telemedicine programs, like Children’s Mercy in Kansas City, Missouri, currently rely on 4G technology. Although not yet widespread, 5G network infrastructure is expected to aggressively grow at a compound annual growth rate of 70 percent between 2019 and 2025, according to Market Reports Center. Right now, telecom providers are preparing to test 5G to demonstrate its interoperability and increased network capacity. If and when those tests succeed—and 5G becomes mainstream—telehealth will become better, faster, and stronger.
But don’t pop the champagne yet. The excitement and opportunity opened up by 5G comes with a grain of salt called 5G security. Between HIPAA compliance and the protection of sensitive patient data, telemedicine will never progress without strong security measures in place. Any time information is communicated digitally, there are risks around privacy and security. Telehealth, where sensitive information flies back and forth between devices and databases, is no exception. Risks include medical identity theft, the privacy of appointments, and data management, to name a few. No one wants to teleconference with a doctor if hackers can gain access to their deepest, darkest medical secrets.
For all the benefits 5G offers—higher speeds, lower latency, and greater power efficiency—it also comes with risks. 5G will usher in more device types and actors, as well as greater use of the cloud and virtualization. This will lead to more security threats and a greatly increased attack surface, according to the SIMalliance, which identified threats for 5G and created recommendations. These include storing device identity and the identities stored by a network authentication application (NAA) separately and independently; conducting NAA audits and third-party certifications; and making secure access to remote provisioning is available for IoT devices that require low power consumption.
The development of 5G is a work in progress, but when it hits the mainstream, it will change medicine as we know it—hopefully for the better. For 5G and telemedicine alike to reach their full potential, 5G security needs to represent a big leap forward from the past. 5G has the potential for boosted security, but it’s not yet a guarantee. Until then, back to the Highlights magazines.